Hi Doron, it might be worth having a look at the various chats happening over on The Club - https://club.ministryoftesting.com/
There's discussions on there about the various types of testing - security, performance, exploratory etc. As well as resources people use for learning, the different tools they use. It's free to register and it's the newer version of here basically!
With regards to requirements and standards you can consider ISTQB documentation.
I'm not aware of the "aggregate" solutions, however you may find individual sites, for example Way2Automation to practice web applications testing automation using i.e.Selenium or Simple Travel Agency for practicing load testing using i.e.JMeter or BlazeMeter.